what three properties of the nucleus can be deduced from the rutherford scattering experiment
In 1905, Ernest Rutherford did an experiment to test the plum pudding model. This apparatus was described in a 1913 paper by Geiger and Marsden.

His two students, Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden, directed a beam of alpha particles at a very thin gold leaf suspended in a vacuum. So the alpha particle can … n <>

Rutherford had discovered the nuclear atom, a small, positively-charged nucleus surrounded by empty space and then a layer of electrons to form the outside of the atom.

This should have been impossible according to Thomson's model; the alpha particles should have all gone straight through. protons) out of the nitrogen nuclei.[18].

volume of nucleus (V) is given by, V = 4/3 πR 3 or, V = 4/3 πr o 3 A In their experiment, they prepared a small conical glass tube (AB) containing "radium emanation" (radon), "radium A" (actual radium), and "radium C" (bismuth-214); its open end sealed with mica. The atom was believed to consist of a positive material "pudding" with negative "plums" distributed throughout. They found that only a tiny fraction of the alpha particles that struck the reflector bounced onto the screen (in this case, 1 in 8,000).[15].

Hantaro Nagaoka, who had once proposed a Saturnian model of the atom, wrote to Rutherford from Tokyo in 1911: "Congratulations on the simpleness of the apparatus you employ and the brilliant results you obtained". The scientists were very surprised when other things happened: Rutherford considered these observations and he concluded: The discovery of the make-up of the nucleus (protons and neutrons) came much later, and was not made by Rutherford. Geiger worked in a darkened lab for hours on end, counting these tiny scintillations using a microscope. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. {\displaystyle s={\frac {Xnt\csc ^{4}{\!\left({\tfrac {\phi }{2}}\right)}}{16r^{2}}}\cdot {\left({\frac {2Q_{n}Q_{\alpha }}{mv^{2}}}\right)}^{2}}, From the scattering data, Rutherford estimated the central charge Qn to be about +100 units (see Rutherford model). The existence of protons and neutrons was unknown at this time. At the atomic scale, the concept of "solid matter" is meaningless.

Geiger then allowed some air in the tube, and the glowing patch became more diffuse. Thomson himself was never able to develop a complete and stable model of his concept. What conclusions were derived from the scattering experiment. Alpha particles were known to be much, much more dense than gold. Before the experiment the best model of the atom was known as the Thomson or "plum pudding" model.


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